Corrective Lighting, Posing and Retouching for Digital
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Photo manipulation dates back to some of the earliest photographs captured on glass and tin plates during the 19th century. Some darkroom manipulations involved techniques such as bleaching to artfully lighten or totally wash-out parts of the photograph, or hand coloring for aesthetic purposes or to mimic a fine art painting. In the early 19th century, photography and the technology that made it possible was rather crude and cumbersome. While the equipment and technology progressed over time, it was not until the late 20th century that photography evolved into the digital realm.
At the onset, digital photography was considered by some to be a radical new approach, and was initially rejected by photographers because of its substandard quality. An early example of tampering was in the early s, when a photo of Abraham Lincoln was altered using the body from a portrait of John C.
Calhoun and the head of Lincoln from a famous seated portrait by Mathew Brady — the same portrait which was the basis for the original Lincoln five-dollar bill. Grant posing horseback in front of his troops at City Point, Virginia. For example, Grant's head is set at a strange angle to his body, his uniform is of a different time period, and his favorite horse Cincinnati did not have a left hind sock like the horse in the photograph, although his other horse Egypt did have a sock but on a different foot.
With further research, three different photographs were discovered that explained the composite using Grant's head from one photograph, the body of Major General Alexander McDowell McCook atop his horse from another photograph, and for the background, an photograph of Confederate prisoners captured at the Battle of Fisher's Hill. In the 20th century, digital retouching became available with Quantel computers running Paintbox in professional environments,  which, alongside other contemporary packages, were effectively replaced in the market by Adobe Photoshop and other editing software for graphic imaging.
Photo manipulation has been used to deceive or persuade viewers or improve storytelling and self-expression. As early as the American Civil War, photographs were published as engravings based on more than one negative. Joseph Stalin made use of photo retouching for propaganda purposes.
Stalin had Trotsky retouched out of a photograph showing Trotsky in attendance. The pioneer among journalists distorting photographic images for news value was Bernarr Macfadden : in the mids, his " composograph " process involved reenacting real news events with costumed body doubles and then photographing the dramatized scenes—then pasting faces of the real news-personalities gathered from unrelated photos onto his staged images. In the s, artist John Heartfield used a type of photo manipulation known as the photomontage to critique Nazi propaganda.
Some ethical theories have been applied to image manipulation. During a panel on the topic of ethics in image manipulation  Aude Oliva theorized that categorical shifts are necessary in order for an edited image to be viewed as a manipulation. In Image Act Theory ,  Carson Reynolds extended speech act theory by applying it to photo editing and image manipulations.
Mitchell details the long history of photo manipulation and discusses it critically. A notable incident of controversial photo manipulation occurred over a photograph that was altered to fit the vertical orientation of a National Geographic magazine cover. The altered image made two Egyptian pyramids appear closer together than they actually were in the original photograph. Shortly after the incident, Tom Kennedy, director of photography for National Geographic stated, "We no longer use that technology to manipulate elements in a photo simply to achieve a more compelling graphic effect.
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There are other incidents of questionable photo manipulation in journalism. One such incident arose in early after Martha Stewart was released from prison. Newsweek used a photograph of Stewart's face on the body of a much slimmer woman for their cover, suggesting that Stewart had lost weight while in prison. Image manipulation software has affected the level of trust many viewers once had in the aphorism, the camera never lies.
The image in question was a fraudulent composite image of John Kerry taken on June 13, and Jane Fonda taken in August, sharing the same platform at a antiwar rally; the latter of which carried a fake Associated Press credit with the intent to change the public's perspective of reality. There is a growing body of writings devoted to the ethical use of digital editing in photojournalism.
Corrective Lighting, Posing & Retouching for Digital Portrait Photographers
In the United States, for example, the National Press Photographers Association NPPA established a Code of Ethics which promotes the accuracy of published images, advising that photographers "do not manipulate images [ In , a Ukrainian photographer Stepan Rudik, winner of the 3rd prize story in Sports Features, has been disqualified due to violation of the rules of the World Press Photo contest.
The photo manipulation industry has often been accused of promoting or inciting a distorted and unrealistic image of self; most specifically in younger people. The world of glamour photography is one specific industry which has been heavily involved with the use of photo manipulation what many consider to be a concerning element as many people look up to celebrities in search of embodying the 'ideal figure'.
Many of the alterations to skin involve removing blemishes through the use of the healing tool in Photoshop. Photo editors may also alter the color of hair to remove roots or add shine. Additionally, the model's teeth and eyes may be made to look whiter than they are in reality. Make up and piercings can even be edited into pictures to look as though the model was wearing them when the photo was taken.
Through photo editing, the appearance of a model may be drastically changed to mask imperfections. In an article entitled, Confessions of a Retoucher: how the modeling industry is harming women, a professional retoucher who has worked for mega-fashion brands shares the industry's secrets. It is almost worse than making someone slimmer because the image claims you can be at an unhealthy weight but still look healthy. In reality, you can't, you have to Photoshop it". Professionals are saying that if an image is not labelled "not retouched," then the public can assume that photograph has been modified.
Not only are photos being manipulated by professionals for the media, but also with the rise of social media everyone has easy access to edit photos they post online. Countless Apps have been created to allow smartphone user tools to modify personal images. With social media users and the younger generation being exposed to an extreme amount of imagery that has been manipulated the consequences have a negative impact as body ideals are unachievable. Social media has the opportunity to be used as a platform for promoting healthy body image and unedited photos; the need for approval over social media has to be altered in the near future.
Photo manipulation has triggered negative responses from both viewers and celebrities. This has led to celebrities refusing to have their photos retouched in support of the American Medical Association that has decided that "[we] must stop exposing impressionable children and teenagers to advertisements portraying models with body types only attainable with the help of photo editing software"  These include Keira Knightley , Brad Pitt , Andy Roddick , Jessica Simpson , Lady Gaga and Zendaya.
Brad Pitt had a photographer, Chuck Close , take photos of him that emphasized all of his flaws. Chuck Close is known for his photos that emphasize all skin flaws of an individual. Kate Winslet spoke out against photo manipulation in media after GQ magazine altered her body, making it look unnaturally thin.
In April , Britney Spears agreed to release "un-airbrushed images of herself next to the digitally altered ones". Multiple companies have begun taking the initiative to speak out against the use of photo manipulation when advertising their products. Two companies that have done so include Dove and Aerie.
They want to emphasize what is known as real beauty, or untouched photographs, in the media now. They have a line of undergarments now that goes by that name with the intention of them being for everyone. They also add in their advertisements that "The real you is sexy. Also, the American Medical Association has taken a stand against the use of photo manipulation.
McAneny made a statement that altering models to such extremes creates unrealistic expectations in children and teenagers regarding body image. He also said that we should stop altering the models so they are not exposed to body types that can be attained only through the use of editing the photos.
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The American Medical Associations as a whole adopted a policy to work with advertisers to work on setting up guidelines for advertisements to try to limit how much photoshop is used. The goal of this policy is to limit the amount of unrealistic expectations for body image in advertisement. Governments are exerting pressure on advertisers, and are starting to ban photos that are too airbrushed and edited. Some editors of magazine companies do not view manipulating their cover models as an issue.
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