Symphony in a Minor Key

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The innovation of sonata form was to take two contrasting moods and move between them, even developing or synthesising them with the help of an overarching harmonic structure.

The three main sections of sonata form are the exposition, development, and recapitulation. The exposition presents the work's main themes, ideas, or subjects the terms can be used interchangeably. It is usually repeated, giving the pre-recording age audience a chance to familiarise themselves with the material.

The development takes these ideas and changes them, exploring how they sound when played on different instruments, in different keys, at different speeds, or as part of different musical textures. The recapitulation repeats the themes from the exposition, but altered slightly. The first movement of a symphony is usually in sonata form. As you can see from this visualisation, the repeated exposition of the first movement of Mozart's Symphony No.


That's a lot of time to become familiar with the themes before Mozart launches into the development section. The recapitulation is considerably longer than one statement of the exposition owing to its extended bridge passage and coda.

Themes in sonata form are in different keys and transition passages help move between them smoothly, or surprise the audience with unexpected twists and turns. The first subject is in the tonic, or home key of the work, in this case G minor. In the bridge passage of Mozart's Symphony No.

Ludwig Van Beethoven's 5th Symphony in C Minor (Full)

Whereas the first theme is in a dark minor key, the second theme is in the brighter, relative major key. While the first theme seemed to gallop along, the second theme is full of slinky chromatic semitones. The codetta energetically returns to the first subject, passing it from instrument to instrument before racing towards the final suspenseful chord, leaving no doubt that the exposition is over.

Mozart and the Minor-Key Symphony

The development section expands only the first few notes of the first subject. You can hear them repeated over and over again on different instruments, in different registers, by turns nostalgic, obstinate, pleading, and affirming. While the first subject of the recapitulation is exactly the same as in the exposition, the bridge passage starts to move harmonically a little earlier, and is considerably longer. In sonata form, the second subject of the recapitulation is played in the tonic key instead of a related key. That's why the colour is closer to the green of the first subject than the deep purple of the exposition's first subject.

Returning to the home key brings the sonata form full circle, so to speak, resolving the sonata's harmonic journey, but the extended codetta, now a full-blown coda, really hammers home the point. Sound is actually air that vibrates, or changes pressure very quickly 20 to 20, times a second , and travels as a sound wave. The outer ear Pinna catches the sound wave and directs it into the inner ear, where the ear drum Tympanic Membrane is.

The ear drum vibrates the Ossicles three bones called the Hammer, Anvil, and Stirrup. They act as a lever which pushes against the Vestibule and moves the fluid inside to the Cochlea. The tiny hairs in the cochlea turn this pressure into electrical signals, which is then sent to the brain, using the cochlear nerve. The brain accepts the electrical signals and recognizes that it is a trumpet.

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Look at the diagram below and notice how the notes are laid out. Flats are defined as the note that is one half step lower than the note you are starting on. So moving up from C to D would be considered a whole step. E to F is also a whole step, as is Bb to C. Did you notice that C and Db are the same note??? All notes have more than one name. When a melody lands on the key note, it usually feels at rest. Sometimes people confuse musical keys with musical scales, but they are not quite the same.

A scale is a series of notes that always starts on the key note, and follows the pattern of sharps and flats for that key.

So a scale is always in a particular key, but a key can never be in a scale! Building Blocks of Music.